Advancements in the synthesis of large-area, high-quality two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 play a crucial role in the development of future electronic and optoelectronic devices. The presence of defects formed by sulfur vacancies in MoS2 results in low photoluminescence emission and imparts high n-type doping behavior, thus substantially affecting material quality. Herein, we report a new method in which single-phase (liquid) precursors are used for the metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of a MoS2 film. Furthermore, we fabricated a high-performance photodetector (PD) and achieved improved photoresponsivity and faster photoresponse in the spectral range 405–637 nm compared to those of PDs fabricated by the conventional MOCVD method. In addition, the fabricated MoS2 thin film showed a threshold voltage shift in the positive gate bias direction owing to the reduced number of S vacancy defects in the MoS2 lattice. Thus, our method significantly improved the synthesis of monolayer MoS2 and can expand the application scope of high-quality, atomically thin materials in large-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices.